By Austin C. Craig
These days we enjoy exceptional Mustang performance and handling from the new Mustang GT, while the 2012 Boss 302 is the fastest, best handling Mustang ever offered from the factory. The performance heritage of both of these Mustangs can be traced back to the summer and fall of 1981 with the launch of the 1982 Mustang GT. The 1982 5.0L V8 performance renaissance, signaled a return to the Mustang's heritage after it fell prey to insurance companies, government emission regulations and fuel economy requirements during the '70s. By the end of that decade enthusiasts wanted more "Total Performance" and were hopeful the all new 1979 Mustang would provide the answer.
In the fall of 1978 the new 1979 Fox-body Mustang was launched amid much hope from enthusiasts that the performance glory of the '60s would enjoy a resurgence with the all-new Mustang. The 1979 Mustang was well styled and was available with a 5.0-liter V8 and 2.3-liter four-cylinder turbo engines. Unfortunately neither power plant offered anywhere near the performance that was hoped for. The 1979 Mustang was chosen as the Indianapolis 500 Pace Car and featured some very aggressive styling enhancements, but even with the 140 horsepower, the 5.0 was less than inspiring. In 1980 and 1981 Mustang went from weak performance to basically no performance as neither the 2.3-liter turbocharged four-cylinder nor the 255 cid V8 with a total of 119 horsepower were the equal of the very good TRX handling suspension, introduced on the 1979 models. The Mustang's image, and more importantly sales, declined as a result.
In 1980 Donald Petersen was promoted to President of the Ford Motor Company. This was welcome news for Mustang and Ford performance enthusiasts as Petersen was a car guy, who was the product planning manager on the first Mustang. During the '70s while heading up Ford truck product planning, he was the man behind the development of the F-150 Supercab. This one feature transformed the pickup from strictly a work truck to one of both work and personal use. It was an industry first and even though the Supercab was launched in the middle of the 1974 fuel crisis, it sold well and became a very important F-Series option.
Don Petersen remembered halcyon days of the "Total Performance" era of the '60s and told the product development, engineering and marketing staffs to get real performance back into Ford vehicles, Mustang being the car that needed it most of all. With little or no engine performance, Mustang's image and worse yet, sales were in a steep decline.
The competition was heating up as both the Camaro and Firebird were going to be all new for 1982. Being fitted with a revised 305 cid V8 and new suspensions and updated bodywork the GM twins were now equipped with state-of-the-art suspensions.
Many people at Ford and as well as the other car companies thought the days of the V8 were at best numbered and would be gone soon. When engine development for 1982 started, the 2.3 turbo four-banger was removed from the lineup for lack of performance. When the carburetor was replaced with fuel injection they had trouble meeting emission standards. A couple of years later, Jim Clark, the engineer in charge of the Mustang engine program and later Chief Engineer for Advanced Powertrain Engineering told me, "We were left with the option of offering only a normally aspirated 2.3L four-cylinder engine for 1982. This was in April of 1981 and with the introduction of the 1982 models only five months away and we all knew that would never do." Jim Clarke was a talented engineer and car guy. He led the charge with the creation of the 5.0 HO V8 for the Mustang in 1982 and was responsible for the continuous improvement of the 5.0 throughout the '80s. What Jim and his team accomplished in spite of all the emissions standards, fuel economy and the economic climate (in the early '80s Ford was not making money) is truly amazing and all of us who love the power and performance of the small block Ford engines owe Jim Clark and his team a debt of gratitude.
Jim Clark received a call from his general manager Don Hagen and asked if Ford could introduce a new V8 engine for the 1982 Mustang. This was April of 1981 when normally the engine lineup for the year ahead was complete. Being an enthusiast and knowing the Mustang needed a V8, Clark had anticipated the question and were mentally ready to respond. On a very limited budget and short time frame, the team delivered the new 5.0 in November 1981. The engine building program took two forms: increasing power and decreasing parasitic losses.
1982 5.0 H.O. V8
The basic engine was the same as the 1979 5.0, but with updates to increase its ability to breathe. The key was getting more flow. The 1979 engine ran out of breath at 4,400 rpm. The 1982 5.0 would pull to 5,500 without any problem. It all started with a twin snorkel air cleaner that breathed cold air form the fenderwell area. A 368 CFM two-barrel carburetor was selected together with a high output fuel pump. Knowing that the g-forces generated by the TRX suspension could cause fuel starvation, the engineers added a redesigned gasket aimed at reducing slosh and adding a substantial increase in static fuel level. This modification also ensured plenty of fuel at wide open throttle, something the engineers knew would occur on numerous occasions when Mustang enthusiasts got their hands on the car.
I was always interested why the 1982 Mustang GT was equipped with a two barrel instead of a four barrel and Jim Clark told me that they wanted a four-barrel, but did not have a four barrel in production that they could use. The emissions standards also required that a new four-barrel or the 4350 carb from the out of production 460 cid engine would have required a complete 50,000 mile EPA cycle to be certified. That took time and money, both of which the 5.0 V8 team did not have. Also a four-barrel manifold would have been a problem since all the existing manifolds were of a high rise design that was too high for the Mustang's profile. Even with the two-barrel setup the non-functional hood from the 1979 model was needed in order for the new air cleaner, original equipment on the H.O. police package to fit under the hood. The heads were the same as before, but were equipped with higher rate valve springs to eliminate coil bind. The addition of a Ford Marine cam with a higher lift and longer duration made the spring improvement mandatory.
The cast iron headers were the same as before, but the exhaust system was enlarged with a 2.25 inch collector and 2.5 inch diameter exhaust pipe.
This enables the engine to breathe better, freeing up more horsepower while delivering a deep rich exhaust note, missing in those days of wheezy sixes and trembling fours. All the improvements resulted in 157 horsepower and 240 lb-ft torque, at the time very exciting numbers and the best for a Mustang since 1973! The EPA mileage ratings of 17 mpg city and 29 mpg highway proved Ford engineers could deliver power, performance and good mileage. The GT came with a four-speed overdrive gearbox, that really felt like a "three and ½ speed" with a very tall 0.70:1 top gear. A 3.08 rear gear ratio with Traction –Lok positraction was standard.
Jim Kennedy was the engineer with responsibility for the Mustang's suspension. Jim was like Clark, an enthusiast who loved performance cars and was especially passionate about the revival of the Mustang's performance. When I asked Jim about the 1982 Mustang GT's suspension he explained, "The suspension was TRX with the addition of traction bars to handle the increased torque. The traction bars were the under-ride version somewhat similar to the traction bars used on the 1966 GT350. Prior to the 5.0 H.O. being put in the Mustang there wasn't an engine that could push the TRX suspension to its limits." The optional TRX suspension was developed around a set of 15.3 forged aluminum wheels on which were mounted 195/65R390 Michelin TRX elliptical performance radials, the package also included special bushing, sway bars, shocks, struts and springs. The improvement over the stock suspension was remarkable.
The steering, now variable power assisted rack and pinion, was unchanged. Brakes were improved with larger 256mm front discs, with semi-metallic pads up front, providing for much greater swept area, the same 9.0x 1.75 inch drums were used at the rear.
The Ford stylists reached into the parts bin and used the front fascia with real driving lights and rear spoiler from the 1979 Indianapolis Mustang Pace Car.
Instead of wild, colors, goofy graphics and garish tape stripes of the past decade, the new Mustang GT was especially appealing with its monochromatic paint, with an understated, but aggressive stance.
Tasteful GT emblems and the now iconic 5.0 emblem were the only exterior identification. The 1982 Mustang GT was offered in only three colors, dark red, silver and black.
The interior colors were limited to red and black. The optional Recaro seats were the same in the 1979 Mustang Pace Car and were in keeping with the image for the Mustang GT.
Knowing that enthusiasts would want an instrument panel with a full complement of gauges, they interior designers created one with a simple, very clean dash fascia in which a tachometer and fuel, amp, oil pressure and engine temperature gauges were mounted.
The 302 H.O. package was available on any Mustang, although the GT package was only available on the three-door hatchback model. The well equipped GT had an MRSP of around $11,000. The Mustang became an exciting, really fun to drive performance car.
Suddenly the Mustang was Young Again
With the advent of the Mustang GT, J Walter Thompson, Ford Division's advertising and communications agency, created the ad campaign, "The Boss is back" for the first time in over twelve years the ads were not full of empty promises, the Mustang GT delivered the goods and so did the advertising.
The Mustang GT proved superior to the new Camaro in magazine acceleration testing. The Camaro was not available with a manual gearbox, so it was tested with the 305 four-barrel backed by a five-speed automatic. Mustang GT set faster 0-60 times, 7.78 versus 8.58 seconds and beat the Camaro on the quarter-miles with times of 16.26 ET at 83.70 against 16.67 ET at 81.00 for the GM competitor. It was a winner at Ford dealerships all across America as performance-starved enthusiasts purchased them as fast as Ford could deliver the Mustangs to their local store.
Conservative Ford Division Sales Operations analysts estimated the Mustang GT and 5.0 H.O would account for only about 11 percent of all Mustang sales. I asked Jim Clark about the increase in Mustang sales due to the Mustang GT and 5.0 H.O. He smiled as told me, "As soon as we started building the GTs we shipped all we could. We were between 43 and 47 percent of incremental volume." A solid testament to the "can do" spirit and hard work of Jim Clark, Jim Kennedy, and from Ford Division, Edsel B. Ford II, Marketing Plans Manager, Jack Witucki, Mustang Marketing Plans Manager, and George Lowe, Powertrain and Forward Planning Manager.
In the spring and summer of 1981 there could not have been a better person to be Manager of Ford Division Marketing Plans than Edsel Ford II. I first met Edsel in 1977 when he was working in the Ford Regional Sales office in Waltham, Massachusetts. As President of the Shelby American Automobile Club I was trying to get permission from Ford to use the Cobra name, which the company now owned, on reproduction tachometers for the 1966 Shelby GT350. Our efforts within Ford had stalled so I called Edsel and told him what we were trying to accomplish. He asked me to send him a letter detailing the program and he would see what he could do to help us out. Two weeks later we received the approval from the Ford Office of General Council to use the Cobra logo on the tachometers.
By 1981 Edsel had recently completed a tour as Assistant Managing Director of Ford of Australia and became Manager of the Ford Division Marketing Plans department. Being a "car guy" Edsel understood that performance sells vehicles and one of his first tasks was to help develop future performance oriented vehicles for Ford Motor Company.
He was involved in the Mustang GT program and was quoted during the launch of the Mustang GT that the car was the company's first shot at getting back at the performance market. Being a very astute marketer, Edsel was well aware of the fuel costs, insurance, emission standards, but felt all this did not mean that Ford can't produce fun-to-drive cars. Today Edsel has not changed; he is still a true blue enthusiast.
I remember reading a magazine with the 1982 Mustang GT on the cover. I showed it to my wife and said, "How would you like to have this Mustang GT?" At the time her 1973 Mustang Grande was tired and in need of a full restoration. Being a good sport, she agreed, sold her Mustang and we took delivery of a silver 1982 Mustang GT. The first time I pushed the loud pedal to the floor I could not believe how the new 5.0 H.O. pushed us back into the Recaro seats. I knew then that Mustang performance was back.
At the time I worked on the Pontiac account at their advertising agency and drove a new Trans-Am as a company car. I was amazed that the Pontiac people did not worry about the Mustang GT (no, I did not tell them we owned one) all they wanted to do was beat Camaro and Chevrolet.
So on the eve of the 1982 Detroit Grand Prix we were on Woodward Avenue in our Mustang GT heading to a party when I saw a red Trans-Am and pulled up next to it at a light to see if I could smoke him.
Luckily I was on the right side as the driver was John Schinella, the designer of the new Trans-Am as well as the leading car stylist of the '70s Firebirds. John also designed the famous "screaming chicken" decal that adorned many a Trans-Am. John was a good friend and client who we planned to be with at the party. Good fortune smiled on me as Schinella saw a Corvette pull up next to him and raced that car away from the light! At the party he told me he raced a Vette and lost. I just smiled.
Although I enjoyed my time on the Pontiac business and worked with some real enthusiastic car guys, like Chief Engineer Bob Dorn, John Schinella, and chassis engineers, Terry Satchell and Tom Goad, I wanted to work on Ford Division business. I received a break in late 1982 when long time friend William Jeanes, who headed up the Ford business at J. Walter Thompson, called and asked me if I wanted to work on the Ford Division account. I said "yes" in a second and started the first week of 1983.
On one of my first visits to Ford Division I walked by an office and noticed a lot of Mustang and Ford Motorsports photography. I thought a "car guy" must live here. I did not see anyone as I ambled in looking at the photos when a voice from the corner said, "Can I help you?" I said who I was and that I liked Mustangs, the man, George Lowe, said, "Sit down!" George, I found, was an enthusiast who was the Mustang, Thunderbird and Exp Marketing Product Plans Manager. A friendship was born that continues today.
Lowe who always has had "gasoline in his veins" had previously worked for Lincoln-Mercury Racing Director, Fran Hernandez, who also was instrumental in the 1979 Mustang Pace Car Program. In the mid-'60s Lowe wrote and sent an intercompany purchase order to Engine and Foundry Division for the first 12 427 SOHC engines. The cost of each brand new engine was 1 million dollars each!
Mustang GT 1983-1987 A Period of Continuous Improvement
One of the points George stressed was the "continuous improvement" for Mustang and indeed all Ford carlines. As previously mentioned the company had to work with emissions, fuel economy and government safety and EPA timeline regulations, as the new Mustang GT models came to market.
A good example of this was when George Lowe pointed out that the 1983 models had to get EPA approval by March of 1982. Even with timelines like this the 1983 Mustang GT featured a new four-barrel Holley 600 cfm carburetor that increased the horsepower rating from 157 to 175 with a corresponding increase in torque from 240 lb-ft to 247. New hood with revised nose treatment and blacked out trim and extra pin striping were the styling updates for 1983. Midway through the model year the four-speed SROD (Single Rail Overdrive) gearbox was replaced with a new Borg-Warner T-5 five-speed transmission. The T-5 was engineered for the V8 power, shifted smoothly and when paired with the 5.0 engine provided an outstanding combination. My 1983 Mustang GT was an early model with the SROD, my wife received her 1983 Mustang GT later and it came equipped with the T-5. There was a noticeable difference and improvement in the Mustang's drivability with the new five-speed.
The TRX suspension remained the same for 1983, except for the wider 220 millimeter tires providing excellent handling and traction. With the Mustang GT's performance improvement; 0-60 times improved to 7 seconds flat with a quarter-mile time of 15.4 at 90 miles per hour, nearly a full second and 7 mph faster in the quarter than the '82 Mustang GT.
The continuous improvement, George Lowe emphasized, was very evident in the 1984 Mustang GT. Once again the horsepower increased to 200. Ford's new EEC-IV computerized engine management system went a long way toward allowing the Mustang V8 engines to offer ever increasing performance while meeting emissions and fuel economy requirements. Mustang GT was also offered with A4OD automatic transmission and a throttle body fuel injection system, called CFI for Central Fuel Injection, instead of the Holley four barrel. Horsepower rating was 165.
With the increase in horsepower, Jim Kennedy and his team of chassis engineers reworked the rear suspension. The underride traction bars were scrapped and a new, more sophisticated, Quadra-Shock suspension with two vertical and two horizontal shocks was employed to curtail wheel hop and to keep the rear planted under heavy cornering. An 8.8 rear replaced the 7.5 incher – a move dictated by the increase in horsepower. A small but significant addition was made with the front body structure. George Lowe remembers, "We wanted to stiffen the chassis so a structure adhesive was added to the spot welds of the front body structure resulting in much higher structural rigidity, a small, but important continuous improvement."
The 1985 Mustang received sweeping changes in both terms of styling and performance. Jim Clark and his talented engine engineers continued to work their "magic" on the 5.0 H.0 V8. The valvetrain was upgraded to a roller cam and tappets which increased reliability, reduced friction and made for easier running at high rpm. The engine benefited from more aggressive cam timing as the Ford engineers learned how to get the most out of the EEC-IV engine controls. The largest gains were realized with the updated exhaust system. Previously the system flowed pretty well, but it had cast iron manifolds, a single catalytic converter, muffler and exhaust pipe. Clark and his team threw all this away and started over.
Real steel tube headers replaced the heavy and restrictive iron manifolds, and a full exhaust system was installed. This included two catalytic converters, two mufflers with polished exhaust pipes exiting out the back. All this resulted in better breathing, better looks and an even better deep exhaust note. The 5.0 H.O. now made 210 horsepower.
The 1985 Mustang was the last one enthusiasts could purchase as a carbureted 5.0 H.O. V8 engine.
Jim Kennedy and his chassis engineers improved the suspension with a refined Quadra-Shock suspension system with variable rate springs, gas filled shocks and struts. Goodyear had developed a new Eagle performance tire called the "Gatorback" patterned after their Blue Streak Formula 1 racing rain tires. Ford specified the 225/60/15 Eagle VR Gatorbacks and they were a big improvement over the former TRX radials. The new tires came mounted on a new 15x7 inch alloy wheel.
The day I bought my 1985 Mustang GT, I turned left out of the dealership onto a rain-slicked street and hammered it. The Mustang tracked straight and true and I was very impressed. I called Jim Kennedy and asked him what made the new Mustang GT handle so well, especially in wet conditions. He replied, "Eighty five percent of the new handling and traction improvement is because of the Goodyear Eagle "Gatorbacks."
The 1986 Mustang GT was essentially carryover in appearance, except for the federally mandated center high mounted brake light. The light was easily integrated into the rear spoiler of the hatchback, but posed a problem on the GT convertible where it would stick out like a sore thumb on the trunk lid. George Lowe and his team wrestled with the problem and came up with the idea to add a luggage rack on the trunk lid and fasten the light in front of it for a clean appearance. Another example of continuous improvement in spite of the federally mandated ruling.
The 5.0 H.O. received a new fuel injection system, not a throttle body, but a direct-port-injection design that featured an upper and lower intake manifold, computerized fuel metering and a mass air sensing device. The new Ford injection system could be tuned for optimum power by installing larger fuel injectors, increasing fuel pump pressure and the size of the air intake. Crisper throttle response, cold starts and an easier time dealing with the ever increasing emission requirements, were just some of the advantages fuel injection offered. Power was down from 210 to 200 because of a new cylinder head for 1986 only. Only the horsepower decreased as the torque, the force that really moves the car increased from 265 lb-ft to 285 lb-ft making the Mustang feel more powerful than the carbureted Mustang.
The 1987 Mustang GT received styling, suspension, interior and instrument panel updates that would carry the Fox-body to the end of its run in 1993. A much more aero nose look with flush headlights and a lower intake design. It also had new round fog lights held in the lower front fascia. Rocker panels had fake air scopes added for a new styling look. The rear side windows were now flush mounted for a clean look. The rear end received a louvered treatment over the taillights and a new more blockish lower rear fascia. A new 20-spoke alloy wheel design with the same dimensions as the previous wheel. Tire size remained the same. The interior and instrument panel were all new and more ergonomic than the previous models. The gauges were now back lit and much easier to read than previous instruments while new controls for the heating ventilation and air conditioning were revised with a new twist dial up setup. Excellent multi-adjustable seats provided excellent support and comfort.
The really big news was again under the hood. The 5.0 H.O was up rated to 225 horsepower with 300 lb-ft of torque. Jim Clark and his engine folks were having fun in the Ford parts bin. They took the 1986 speed density fuel system and mated it to a set of pre-1986 heads for increased airflow. This combination was good for the additional 25 horsepower and the increase in torque.
The chassis engineering people under Jim Kennedy also know their way around the Ford Motor Company parts bin, always looking for an edge; they continued to improve the brakes with the addition of the larger Lincoln 10.9 inch front discs, replacing the 10.1 inch units from prior years.
Beginning in 1982, the Mustang GTs was all about horsepower and performance value for the money. This was not lost on performance enthusiasts who purchased Mustang GTs and other 5.0 H.O. V8 powered Mustangs in numbers not even the most optimistic person could have dreamed of in the spring of 1981.
The spirit and "can do" attitude of dedicated and extremely talented enthusiasts like, Donald Petersen, Edsel Ford II, Jim Clark, Jim Kennedy and George Lowe and their dedicated teams resulted in a true renaissance of Mustang performance that is alive and well today. For making our lives more enjoyable by being able to purchase Mustangs with true, all around performance, we owe each of these men and their teams a debt of gratitude.
The Boss is Back- Big Time
Performance has always been the hallmark of the most desirable Mustangs and today we live in an exciting time to be a Mustang enthusiast. Like their predecessors in 1981, the current Mustang Team led on the marketing side by Jim Farley, Group Vice President Global Marketing Sales and Service, Steve Ling, Performance and Large Car Manager, together with Mustang Chief Engineer, Dave Pericak, are all Mustang enthusiasts and "car guys." Being enthusiasts they all know that performance is a "must have" feature for all Mustangs.
Like Jim Clark, Mike Harrison and his engine team have designed and engineered a state of the art 5.0L 4Vengine for the 2011 Mustang GT. Producing 412 horsepower and 380 lb-ft of torque the 5.0L 4V propels the Mustang to outstanding quarter-miles elapsed times of 12.7 seconds at 112 miles per hour, times that purpose built race cars recorded only a few years ago. Like the 1982 5.0 H.O V8, the 2011 5.0L 4V enables Mustang to outperform its nearest competitor, Camaro during head to head road tests.
The Ford marketing and engineering teams know that laurels are not for resting on so in the spring of 2011 the new 2012 Boss 302 arrived in Ford dealer showrooms across the country. Dave Pericak said it best: "The Ford team wanted to offer their fellow Mustang enthusiasts something really special….A beautifully balanced factory-built race car that they could drive on the street. The Boss 302 is not something a Mustang GT owner can buy all the parts out of a catalog, or that a tuner can get by adding a chip. This is a back to front re-engineered Mustang with every system designed to make a good driver great and a great driver even better."
The 1982 Mustang GT's monochromatic styling was a departure from the garish 1980 and 1981 Cobra models. The new 5.0 H.O. engine's 157 horsepower was put to the ground by the TRX suspension, the three-spoke wheels were years ahead of the '90s trend.
Here is the 1982 Mustang GT with a McLaren Mustang race car. For the first time since 1971 Ford produced a real performance Mustang. It outsold volume predictions by a wide margin.
Donald E. Petersen, Ford Motor Company President, told the marketing and engineering teams to put performance back into the Mustang when took over the reins in 1980. He attended the Bondurant School of High Performance Driving and directed Ford to be the official vehicles of the school, with Mustang as the lead car.
Edsel B. Ford II, Ford Division Marketing Plans Manager in 1981, an enthusiast, understood that performance sells Mustangs and worked hard to ensure the 1982 Mustang GT was a fun-to-drive car. Every Ford Division car line's performance and features improved during Edsel's time as Marketing Plans Manager from 1981 through 1983.
For 1983 the Mustang GT received a new nose, four barrel carb and horsepower increased to 175. The wheels shown were the standard alloy wheels equipped with Goodyear Eagle radials.
The 5.0 H.O. engine and TRX suspension were available on non GT models like this LX convertible in 1983.
To celebrate and promote the Mustang's 20th Anniversary Ford Division produced this brochure. The special 20th Anniversary Edition was available with the 5.0 H.O engine now with 200 horsepower and TRX suspension. This would be the last year for the TRX option.
The 1985 Mustang GT incorporated a number of styling and performance updates including a boost to 210 horsepower, new front fascia, with functional fog lamps and a new air intake. The suspension featured new 15x7 inch 10-hole alloys with 225/560/15 Goodyear Eagle "Gatorback" high performance radials. The 1985 GT was the fastest Mustang since the 1971 Boss 351.
The rear end of the 1985 Mustang was revised with an integral spoiler. A new true dual exhaust system with steel tube headers added to the car's performance. New cloth articulated sport seats offered good support during hard cornering.
George Lowe, shown here with a Bondurant School 1985 Mustang, was Mustang/Thunderbird and EXP Marketing Plans Manager and is one of the key people at Ford for the development of the Mustang GT and the Thunderbird Turbo Coupe. Like his engineering counterparts, Jim Clark and Jim Kennedy, Lowe, a true enthusiast, understood the need for Mustang's continuous improvement.
The revised 1987 Mustang GT ushered in the glory days for the Fox-bodied Mustang with 225 horsepower and many updates that would carry the carline through the rest of its product cycle.
The 2011 Mustang GT created a new 5.0 V8 performance era with the introduction of the 5.0L 4V V8 with 412 horsepower and 380 lb-ft of torque.
Dave Pericak, Mustang Chief Engineer led the engineering charge on the 2011 Mustang GT and the 2012 Boss 302.
Mike Harrison led the V8 engine team that designed and engineered the new Ford 5.0L 4V V8 engines for both the Mustang GT and the Boss 302.
Jim Farley (left), Parnelli Jones and Robert Parker are pictured here at the introduction of the 2012 Boss 302 at Laguna Seca Raceway on August 13, 2010. Farley, Group VP Global Marketing, Sales and Service and Parker, Director of Product Communications, are Mustang enthusiasts and understand the car's performance DNA.
Published Oct 2nd, 2017
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